The Nowicki Lab at Duke University


Click on titles to download pdfs · Note that Steve Nowicki does not put his name on every paper that comes out of his lab, especially those of his graduate students. See additional papers listed on lab member pages or on the home pages of lab alumni.

Caves EM, Davis AL, Nowicki S & Johnsen S. 2023. Backgrounds and the evolution of visual signals.Trends in Ecology and Evolution doi:10.1016/j.tree.2023.09.006

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2023. Human-wild bird cooperation. Science doi:10.1126/science.adl5923

Searcy WA, Chronister LM & Nowicki S. 2023. Syntactic rules predict song type matching in a songbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology doi:10.1007/s00265-022-03286-3

Peters S, Soha J, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2022. Are song sequencing rules learned by song sparrows? Animal Behaviour doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2022.07.015

Davis A, Zipple MN, Diaz D, Peters S, Nowicki S & Johnson S. 2022. Influence of visual background on discrimination of signal-relevant colours in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Proceedings of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rspb.2022.0756

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2022. Animal communication. In: The Behavior of Animals: Mechanisms, Function and Evolution. J.J. Bolhuis et al. (eds.), Chapter 14. John Wiley & Sons.

Searcy WA, Soha J, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2022. Long-distance dependencies in birdsong syntax. Proceedings of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rspb.2021.2473

Green PA, George EM, Rosvall KA, Johnsen S & Nowicki S. 2021. Testosterone, signal coloration, and signal color perception in male zebra finch contests. Ethology doi:10.1111/eth.13247

Kochvar KH, Peters S, Zipple MN & Nowicki S. 2021. Maturational changes in song sparrow song. Journal of Avian Biology doi:10.1111/jav.02872

Searcy WA, Soha J, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2021. Variation in vocal production learning across songbirds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rtsb.2020.0257

Caves EM, Green PA, Zipple MN, Bharath D, Peters S, Johnsen S & Nowicki S. 2021. Comparison of categorial color perception in two Estrildid finches. American Naturalist doi:10.1086/712379

Zipple MN, Peters S, Searcy W & Nowicki S. 2020. Female swamp sparrows do not show evidence of discriminating between the songs of peak-aged and senescent males. Ethology doi:10.1111/eth.13102

Peniston JH, Green PA, Zipple MN & Nowicki S. 2020. Threshhold assessment, categorical perception, and the evolution of reliable signaling. Evolution doi:10.1111/evo.14122

Dinh, JP, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2020. Song performance improves with continued singing across the morning in a songbird. Animal Behaviour doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2020.06.018

Caves EM, Schweikert LE, Green PA, Zipple MN, Taboada C, Peters S, Nowicki S & Johnsen S. 2020. Variation in carotenoid-containing retinal oil droplets correlates with variation in perception of carotenoid coloration. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology doi:10.1007/s00265-020-02874-5

Green PA, Brandley NC & Nowicki S. 2020. Categorical perception in animal communication and decision-making. Behavioral Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/araa004

Zipple MN, Peters S, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2020. Sounds of senescence: male swamp sparrows respond less aggressively to the songs of older individuals. Behavioral Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/arz218

Searcy, WA & Nowicki S. 2019. The raised-by-wolves predicament. Curr. Biol. 29: R1243-1244. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.09.064

Soha JA, Peters S, Anderson RC, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2019. Performance on tests of cognitive ability is not repeatable across years in a songbird. Animal Behaviour doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2019.09.020

Zipple MN, Nowicki S, Searcy WA & Peters S. 2019. Full life course analysis of bird song reveals maturation and senescence of highly repeatable song characteristics. Behavioral Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/arz146

Caves EM, Nowicki S & Johnsen S. 2019. Von Uexkull revisited: Addressing human biases in the study of animal perception. Integrative and Comparative Biology doi:10.1093/icb/icz073

Searcy WA, Ocampo D. & Nowicki S. 2019. Constraints on song type matching in a songbird. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 73: 102. doi:10.1007/s00265-019-2708-6

Zipple MN, Caves EM, Green PA, Peters S, Johnsen S & Nowicki S. 2019. Categorical perception across non-signaling versus signaling color ranges in a songbird. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 286: 20190524. doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.0524

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2019. Birdsong learning, avian cognition, and the evolution of language. Anim. Behav. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2019.01.015

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2019. Signal reliability and intraspecific deception. In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, 2nd Edition. Choe, J.C. (ed.), vol. 1, pp. 589-597. Elsevier, Academic Press.

Caves EM, Green PA, Zipple MN, Peters S, Johnsen S & Nowicki S. 2018. Categorical perception of colour signals in a songbird. Nature doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0377-7

Lachlan RF, Ratmann O & Nowicki S. 2018. Cultural conformity generates extremely stable traditions in bird song. Nature Communications 9: 2417 doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04728-1

Sewall KB, Anderson RC, Soha JA, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2018. Early life conditions that impact song learning in male zebra finches also impact neural and behavioral responses to song in females. Dev. Neurobiol. doi:10.1002/dneu.22600

Liu IA, Soha JA & Nowicki S. 2018. Song type matching and vocal performance in territorial signalling by male swamp sparrows. Anim. Behav. 139: 117-125.

DuBois AL, Nowicki S, Peters S, Rivera-Cáceres KD & Searcy WA. 2018. Song is not a reliable signal of general cognitive ability in a songbird. Anim. Behav. 137: 205-213.

Niederhauser JM, DuBois AL, Searcy WA, Nowicki S & Anderson RC. 2018. A test of the eavesdropping avoidance hypothesis as an explanation for the structure of low-amplitude aggressive signals in the song sparrow. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 72: article 47.

Anderson RC, Searcy WA, Peters S, Hughes M, DuBois AL & Nowicki S. 2017. Song learning and cognitive ability are not consistently related in a songbird. Animal Cognition 20: 309-320.

Peters S & Nowicki S. 2017. Overproduction and attrition: the fates of songs memorized during song learning in songbirds. Anim. Behav. 124: 255-261.

DuBois AL, Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2016. A test for repertoire matching in eastern song sparrows. J. Avian Biol. 47: 146-152.

Klofstad CA, Nowicki S & Anderson RC. 2016. How voice pitch influences our choice of leaders. American Scientist 104 (Sept-Oct issue).

Soha JA & Peters S. 2015. Vocal learning in songbirds and humans: A retrospective in honor of Peter Marler. Ethology 121: 933-945.

Klofstad CA, Anderson RC & Nowicki S. 2015. Perceptions of competence, strength, and age influence voters to select leaders with lower-pitched voices. PLOS ONE doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133779

Liu IA, Johndrow JE, Abe J, Lupold S, Yasukawa K, Westneat DF & Nowicki S. 2015. Genetic diversity does not explain variation in extra-pair paternity in multiple populations of a songbird. J. Evol. Biol. 28: 1156-1169.

Akcay C, Anderson RC, Nowicki S, Beecher MD & Searcy WA. 2015. Quiet threats: soft song as an aggressive signal in birds. Anim. Behav. 105: 267-274.

Lachlan RF & Nowicki S. 2015. Context-dependent categorical perception in a songbird. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 112: 1892-1897.

Lachlan RF, Anderson RC, Peters S, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2014. Typical versions of learned swamp sparrow song types are more effective signals than are less typical versions. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281: 20140252.

Peters S, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2014. Developmental stress, song-learning, and cognition. Integrative and Comparative Biology 54: 555-567.

Searcy WA, Akcay C, Nowicki S & Beecher MD. 2014. Aggressive signaling in Song Sparrows and other songbirds. In: M. Naguib et al. (Eds.) Advances in the Study of Behavior 46: 89-125. Academic Press: Burlington.

Anderson RC, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2014. Effects of early auditory experience on the development of local song preference in female swamp sparrows. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 68: 437-447.

Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2014. The evolution of vocal learning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 28: 48-53.

Searcy WA, Sewall KB, Soha JA, Nowicki S & Peters S. 2014. Song-type sharing in a population of Song Sparrows in the eastern United States. J. Field Ornith. 85: 206-212.

Searcy WA, DuBois AL, Rivera-Cáceres K & Nowicki S. 2013. A test of a hierarchical signalling model in song sparrows. Anim. Behav. 86: 309-315.

Sewall KB, Soha JA, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2013. Potential trade-off between vocal ornamentation and spatial ability in a songbird. Biology Letters 9: 20130344.

Anderson RC, DuBois AL, Piech DK, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2013. Male response to an aggressive visual signal, the wing-wave display, in swamp sparrows. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 67: 593-600.

Lachlan RF & Nowicki S. 2012. How reliable is song learning accuracy as a signal of male early condition? American Naturalist 180: 751-761.

Peters S, Derryberry EP & Nowicki S. 2012. Songbirds learn songs least degraded by environmental transmission. Biology Letters 8: 736-739.

Anderson RC, Hughes M, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2012. The receiver-dependent cost of soft song – a signal of aggressive intent in songbirds. Anim. Behav. 83: 1443-1448.

Prather JF, Peters S, Mooney R & Nowicki S. 2012. Sensory constraints on birdsong syntax: neural responses to swamp sparrow songs with accelerated trill rates. Anim. Behav. 83: 1411-1420.

Boogert N, Anderson RC, Peters S, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2011. Song repertoire size in male song sparrows correlates with detour-reaching, but not with other cognitive measures. Anim. Behav. 81: 1209-1216.

DuBois A, Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2011. Discrimination of vocal performance by male swamp sparrows. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 65: 717-726.

Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2011. Are better singers smarter? Behav. Ecol. 22: 10-11.

Prather JF, Peters S, Nowicki S & Mooney R. 2010. Persistent representation of juvenile experience in the adult songbird brain. J. Neurosci. 30: 10586-10598.

Searcy WA, Peters S, Kipper S & Nowicki S. 2010. Female sparrows use song to assess male developmental history. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64: 1343-1349.

DuBois A, Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2009. Swamp sparrows modulate vocal performance in an aggressive context. Biology Letters 5: 163-165.

Prather JF, Nowicki S, Anderson RC, Peters S & Mooney R. 2009. Neural correlates of categorical perception in learned vocal communication. Nature Neuroscience 12: 121-128.

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2009. Consequences of brain development for sexual signalling in songbirds. In: Dukas, R & J. Ratcliffe (eds.) Cognitive Ecology II, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 71-87.

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2009. Sexual selection and the evolution of animal signals. In: Larry R. Squire (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, vol. 8, pp. 769-776, Academic Press: Oxford.

Anderson RC, Searcy WA, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2008. Soft song in song sparrows: acoustic structure and implications for signal function. Ethology 114: 662-676.

Anderson RC, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2008. Testing the function of song matching in birds: responses of eastern male song sparrows Melospiza melodia to partial song matching. Behaviour 154: 347-363.

Ballentine B, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2008. Reliable aggressive signalling in swamp sparrows. Anim. Behav. 75: 693-703.

Nowicki S. 2008, 2012. Biology. Holt-McDougal (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt): Austin, TX.

Prather JF, Peters S, Nowicki S & Mooney R. 2008. Precise auditory-motor mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication. Nature 451: 305-310.

Searcy WA, Anderson RC & Nowicki S. 2008. Is bird song a reliable signal of aggressive intent? A reply. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 62: 1213-1216.

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2008. Bird song and the problem of signal reliability. Amer. Scientist 96: 114-121.

Anderson RC, Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2007. Soft song in song sparrows: response of males and females to an enigmatic signal. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 61: 1267-1274.

Hughes M, Anderson RC, Searcy WA, Bottensek LM & Nowicki S. 2007. Song type sharing and territory tenure in eastern song sparrows: implications for the evolution of song repertoires. Anim. Behav. 73: 701-710.

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2006. Signal interception and the use of soft song in aggressive interactions. Ethology 112: 865-872.

Searcy WA, Anderson RC & Nowicki S. 2006. Bird song as a signal of aggressive intent. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. l60: 234-241.

Anderson RC, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2005. Partial song matching in an eastern population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) . Anim. Behav. 69: 189-196.

Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2005. Adaptive priorities in brain development: Theoretical comment on Pravosudov (2005). Behav. Neurosci. 119: 1415-1418.

Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2005. Song and mate choice in birds: How the development of behavior helps us understand function. Auk 122: 1-14.

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2005. The Evolution of Animal Communication: Reliability and Deception in Signaling Systems. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.

Ballentine B, Hyman J & Nowicki S. 2004. Singing performance influences female response to male bird song: an experimental test. Behav. Ecol. 15: 163-168.

Hyman J, Hughes M, Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2004. Individual variation in the strength of territory defense in song sparrows: correlates of age, territory tenure, and neighbor aggressiveness. Behaviour 141: 15-27.

Nowicki S. 2004. Biology: The Science of Life. The Teaching Company: Chantilly, VA.

Nowicki S & Searcy WA. 2004. Song function and the evolution of female preferences: Why birds sing and why brains matter. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1016: 704-723.

Podos J & Nowicki S. 2004. Beaks, adaptation, and vocal evolution in Darwin's finches. BioScience 54: 501-510.

Podos J & Nowicki S. 2004. Performance limits on birdsong production. In: Marler, P & H. Slabbekoorn (Eds.) Nature's Music: The Science of Birdsong, pp. 318-341. Elsevier/Academic Press: New York.

Podos J, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2004. Calibration of song learning targets during vocal ontogeny in swamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana). Anim. Behav. 68: 929-940.

Searcy WA, Peters S & Nowicki S. 2004. Effects of early nutrition on growth rate and adult size in song sparrows. J. Avian Biol. 35: 269-279.

Searcy WA, Nowicki S & Peters S. 2003. Phonology and dialect discrimination in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Ethology 109: 23-35.

Nowicki S, Searcy WA & Peters S. 2002. Brain development, song learning and mate choice in birds: a review and experimental test of the "nutritional stress hypothesis." J. Comp Physiol. A 188: 1003-1014.

Nowicki S, Searcy WA & Peters S. 2002. Quality of song learning affects female response to male bird song. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 269: 1949-1954.

Nowicki S, Searcy WA, Krueger T & Hughes M. 2002. Individual variation in response to simulated territorial challenge among territory-holding song sparrows. J. Avian Biol. 33: 253-259.

Searcy WA, Nowicki S, Hughes M & Peters S. 2002. Geographic song discrimination in relation to dispersal distances in song sparrows. Amer. Natur. 159: 221-230.

Hoese WJ & Nowicki S. 2001. Using "the organism" as a conceptual focus in an introductory biology course. Amer. Biol. Teacher 63: 176-182.

Mooney R, Hoese WJ & Nowicki S. 2001. Auditory representation of the vocal repertoire in a songbird with multiple song types. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 12798-12783.

Nowicki S, Searcy WA, Hughes M & Podos J. 2001. The evolution of bird song: male and female response to song innovation in swamp sparrows. Anim. Behav. 62: 1189-1195.

Hoese WJ, Podos J, Boetticher NC & Nowicki S. 2000. Vocal tract function in birdsong production: experimental manipulation of beak movements. J. Exp. Biol. 203: 1845-1855.

Nowicki S, Hasselquist D, Bensch S & Peters S. 2000. Nestling growth and song repertoire size in great reed warblers: evidence for song learning as an indicator mechanism in mate choice. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 267: 2419-2424.

Peters S, Searcy WA, Beecher MD & Nowicki S. 2000. Geographic variation in the organization of song sparrow repertoires. Auk 117: 936-942.

Podos J & Nowicki S. 2000. Mechanical limits and the evolution of vocalizations in birds. In: Maria Alice dos Santos Alves, et al. (Eds.) A Ornithologia no Brasil: Pesquisa Atual e Perspectivas, do Congresso Brasileiro de Ornitologia, pp. 251-271. EdUERJ: Rio de Janiero.

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 2000. Male-male competition and female choice in the evolution of vocal signaling. In: Y. Espmark, T. Amundsen & G. Rosenqvist (Eds.) Animal Signals: Signalling and Signal Design in Animal Communication, pp. 301-315. Tapir Academic Press: Trondheim.

Searcy WA, Nowicki S & Hogan C. 2000. Song type variants and aggressive context. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 48: 358-363.

Nowicki S, Peters S, Searcy WA & Clayton C. 1999. The development of within-song type variation in song sparrows. Anim. Behav. 57: 1257-1264.

Podos J, Nowicki S & Peters S. 1999. Permissiveness in vocal syntax learning in the swamp sparrow. Anim. Behav. 58: 93-103.

Searcy WA & Nowicki S. 1999. Functions of song variation in song sparrows. In: M. Konishi & M. Hauser (eds.) The Design of Animal Communication, pp. 577-595. MIT Press: New York.

Searcy WA, Nowicki S & Peters S. 1999. Song types as fundamental units in vocal repertoires. Anim. Behav. 58: 37-44.

Nowicki S, Peters S & Podos J. 1998. Song learning, early nutrition and sexual selection in songbirds. Amer. Zool. 38: 179-190.

Nowicki S, Searcy WA & Hughes M. 1998. The territory defense function of song in song sparrows: a test with the speaker occupation design. Behaviour 135: 615-628.

Hughes M, Nowicki S, Searcy WA & Peters S. 1998. Song type sharing in song sparrows: Implications for repertoire function and song learning. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42: 437-446.

Hughes M, Nowicki S & Lohr B. 1998. Call learning in black-capped chickadees (Parus atricapillus): The role of experience in the development of "chick-a-dee" calls. Ethology 104: 232-249.

Erickson CJ, Nowicki S, Dollar L & Goehring N. 1998. Percussive foraging: Stimuli for prey location by aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Int. J. Primatol. 19: 111-122.

Gaunt AS & Nowicki S. 1998. Birdsong: acoustics and physiology revisited. In: Hopp, S. L. M. J. Owren & C. S. Evans (eds.), Animal Acoustic Communication. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 291-321.

Searcy WA, Hughes M & Nowicki S. 1997. The response of male and female song sparrows to geographic variation in song. Condor 99: 651-657.

Nowicki S. 1997. Bird acoustics. In: M. J. Crocker (ed.) Encyclopedia of Acoustics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, Chapter 150, pp. 1813-1817.

Peters S & Nowicki S. 1996. Development of tonal quality in birdsong: Further evidence from song sparrows. Ethology 102: 323-335.

Strote J & Nowicki S. 1996. Responses to songs with altered tonal quality by adult song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Behaviour 130: 1-15.

Podos J, Shearer JK, Peters S & Nowicki S. 1995. Ontogeny of vocal tract movements during song production in song sparrows. Anim. Behav. 50: 1287-1296.

Searcy WA, Podos J, Peters S & Nowicki S. 1995. Discrimination of song types and variants in song sparrows. Anim. Behav. 49: 1219-1226.

Lohr B, Weisman R & Nowicki S. 1994. The role of pitch cues in song recognition by Carolina chickadees (Parus carolinensis). Behaviour 130: 1-15.

Nowicki S, Podos J & Valdés F. 1994. Temporal patterning of within-song type and between-song type variation in song repertoires. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 34: 329-335.

Nowicki S & Podos J. 1993. Complexity, coupling and contingency in birdsong. In: Perspectives in Ethology, vol.10 (P.P.G. Bateson, P. Klopfer & N. Thompson, eds.), pp. 159-186, Plenum Press, New York.

Westneat MW, Long, Jr. JH, Hoese W & Nowicki S. 1993. Kinematics of birdsong: Functional correlation of cranial movements and acoustic features in sparrows. J. Exp. Biol. 182: 147-171.

Jacobs M, Nowacek DP, Cannon G, Nowicki S & Forward RB. 1993. Seasonal changes in vocalizations during behavior of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin. Estuaries 16: 241-246.

Nowicki S, Westneat M & Hoese W. 1992. Birdsong: Motor function and the evolution of communication. Seminars in Neurosci. 4: 385-390.

Nowicki S, Marler P, Maynard A & Peters S. 1992. Is the tonal quality of birdsong learned? Evidence from song sparrows. Ethology 90: 225-235.

Peters S, Marler P & Nowicki S. 1992. Song sparrows learn from limited exposure to song models. Condor 94: 1016-1019.

Podos J, Peters S, Rudnicky T, Marler P & Nowicki S. 1992. The organization of song repertoires in song sparrows: Themes and variations. Ethology 90: 89-106.

Nowicki S, Hughes M & Marler P. 1991. Flight songs of swamp sparrows: Alternative phonology of an alternative song category. Condor 93: 1-11.

Lohr B, Nowicki S & Weisman R. 1991. Pitch production in Carolina chickadee songs. Condor 93: 197-199.

Nowicki S & Nelson DA. 1990. Defining natural categories in acoustic signals: Comparison of three methods applied to 'chick-a-dee' call notes. Ethology 86: 89-101.

Ball GF & Nowicki S. 1990. Assessment of song quality in photorefractory and photosensitive song sparrows. Anim. Behav. 40: 986-987.

Nowicki S. & Ball GF. 1989. Testosterone induction of song in photosensitive and photorefractory male sparrows. Horm. and Behav. 23: 514-525.

Nowicki S. Mitani JC, Nelson DA & Marler P. 1989. The communicative significance of tonality in birdsong: Responses to songs produced in helium. Bioacoustics 2: 35-46.

Nowicki S. 1989. Vocal plasticity in captive black-capped chickadees: The acoustic basis and rate of call convergence. Anim. Behav. 37: 64-73.

Nowicki S & Marler P. 1988. How do birds sing? Music Perception 5: 391-426.

Nowicki S. 1987. Vocal tract resonances in oscine bird sound production: evidence from birdsongs in a helium atmosphere. Nature 325: 53-55.

Nowicki S & Capranica RR. 1986. Bilateral syringeal coupling during phonation of a songbird. J. Neuroscience 6: 3595-3610.

Nowicki S & Capranica RR. 1986. Bilateral syringeal interaction in the vocal production of an oscine bird sound. Science 231: 1297-1299.

Nowicki S. 1985. Spider. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology (S.P. Parker, editor-in-chief), pp. 410-412, New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.

Nowicki S. 1984. A question of identity: the call of the black-capped chickadee. Living Bird Quart. 3(1) : 30.

Nowicki S. 1983. Flock-specific recognition of chickadee calls. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 12: 317-320.

Eisner T & Nowicki S. 1983. Spider web protection through visual advertisement: The role of the "stabilimentum." Science 219: 185-187.

Nowicki S & Eisner T. 1983. Predatory capture of bombardier beetles by a tabanid fly larva. Psyche 90: 119-122.

Jackman R, Nowicki S, Aneshansley DJ & Eisner T. 1983. Predatory capture of toads by fly larvae. Science 222: 515-516.

Jefson M, Meinwald J, Nowicki S, Hicks K & Eisner T. 1983. Chemical defense of a rove beetle (Creophilus maxillosus). J. Chem. Ecol. 9: 159-180.

Jain SC, Nowicki S, Eisner T & Meinwald J. 1982. Insect repellents for vetiver oil: Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetr. Letters 23: 4639-4642.

Mammen DL & Nowicki S. 1981. Individual differences and within-flock convergence in chickadee calls. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 9: 179-186.

Eisner T, Nowicki S, Goetz M & Meinwald J. 1980. Red cochineal dye (Carminic acid): Its role in nature. Science 208: 1038-1040.

Nowicki S & Armitage KB. 1979. Behavior of juvenile yellow-bellied marmots: Play and social integration. Z. Tierpsychol. 51: 85-105.

Nowicki Lab
Department of Biology
Box 90338, Duke University
Durham, NC  27708-0338  USA
Lab phone: 919-684-6950